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The Words of Market Research

Get through market research vocabulary. Understand the jargon and get things done!


Search for glossary terms (regular expression allowed)
Term Main definition
Hall test (test "in hall") -

Hall Test is a quantitative method aiming to invite respondents to a set location arranged as a test laboratory. Participants give an evaluation of a certain product (packaging, test,...). The goal of a hall test is to obtain a detailed, consumer given evaluation of a certain object (product, pack...) carried out in a room arranged as a test laboratory.

Also see: Tests

Group sampling

Gather a group of individuals for a group study. Group sampling is a manner of sample selection, where complete groups are naturally combined into research subjects.

Global Sample

The survey is open for any type of respondent. No filter will be used. Every individual has equal chances of being selected for the study.

Also see: Booster


GDPR Regulation

General Data Protection Regulation is common in the Market Research industry. It gathers all the rules regarding data protection which has been a sensitive topics over the past few years. It must be followed throughly.

Focus Group

Qualitative method to gather individuals in a room. Usually, those participants are selected depending on their profile and are requested to participate in a group discussion. An incentive is given thanking for their time.

Also see: Online Focus Group


Questions that are defined to segment a certain part of the respondents. It is also used to direct respondents to a part of the survey, depending on their responses. An example could be a question about brand use, frequency of purchase...The answer to a filtering question will decide the further course of the interview - either the respondent passes to another section or the interview is closed.

Also see: Self completion questionnaire, Questionnaire


Fieldwork is a market research term which defines a specific stage in the project. It happens when data are collected (when respondents are answering surveys). Fieldworks were traditionally done offline (Face to Face and Telephone) but progressively switched to digital methodologies such as mobile / online for the folowing reasons : better reach, speed, quality and price.


Experiment tests the market to discover new opportunities. The respondent is not fully aware of the objectives of the research. Consumer's behaviour is studied and analysed. The final result of an experiment is based upon detailed analysis of respondent's behaviour, their indirect references and comparison between different groups taking part in the experiment.

Executive summary

One of the most important part of any research or consulting paper, executive summary is an advanced summary of results, conclusions and recommendations based on the analysis of the research and its main findings. An executive summary is an independent part of a bigger report from research. The information displayed has to be clear and straightforward to facilitate the reading of the decision makers.


Ethnography is used to observe and study human behaviors in their natural environment. For research, this methodology is used to understand deeper the consumer's purchase or usage behavior (Why consumers are doing this?...). Ethnography is a qualitative approach.

Empty Question

This is a random question - most of the time - to gauge the respondent's credibility. It can be a question about general knowledge to make sure the answers are accurate.

Dynamic Sampling

Traffic of respondents coming from different websites or app based sources. Used for difficult targets and access people in remote locations where no access panels exist. Respondents can come from affiliate networks, mobile applications, social networks and thousand of other digital channels...With more than 3 hours a day spend on smartphone in average (global average), dynamic sampling is a great chance to connect with respondents or consumers during their digital daily activities (online /on mobile).


Do It Yourself is a self-service platform. Anyone interested in conducting market research can get access to those automated platforms and start their research right away. Those researchers can create a topic, select a target sample and launch their own project in a few clicks.


Do It Together approach allows clients to be supported by teams of experts using most advanced DIY tools. This is a balance between doing things by themselves and outsourcing all the research. Often seen as the most efficient method to get lower costs for maximal insights.

Discussion guide/scenario

This is a script with a set of questions used for qualitative research. It can also include a scenario. The scenario is here to guide respondents through the discussion and to make sure this last one is structured.

Also see: Discussion Groups (FGI), In Depth Interviews (IDI), Qualitative research

Discussion Groups (FGI)

Discussion Groups also knows as Focus Groups are one of the most popular qualitative research methods. The purpose is to gather a group of respondents discussing a set of topics which have been pre-arranged. Focus groups are used to explore consumer minds - to understand their behaviour or decision making process when it comes to use a service or buy a product. Focus Groups are run by moderators or specialised researchers who supervise and animate the discussion. Groups are recorded on video and discussions are being transcript for further analysis.
Nowadays, raise of technology allows to conduct Online Focus Groups (Discussion Groups) quite easily with various softwares or tools in the market to connect participants and moderator / administrator all together to share thoughts.

Also see: Qualitative research, Moderator, Discussion guide/scenario, In Depth Interviews (IDI)

Digital Fingerprinting

A layer of additional security to access the surveys and verify the identity of the respondent using a combination of information (Geolocation, OS, Device type and version, Proxy usage). Digital Fingerprinting is a very powerfull technology used to identify duplicate respondents. This is a great method to remove fraudulent respondents and perform quality checks.

Digital Acquisition

The digital acquisiton goal is to acquire new participants through different promotional actions. We live in a very connected world and most people visit many websites every day. Those respondents are attracted to specific websites to strengthen a panel and make it bigger in term of reach.

Also see: CPA (Cost-per-Acquistion)


Diary is mostly used for qualitative research. Participants have to log in to a platform and write down their feelings, thoughts on a daily or weekly basis. The analysis of the diary will be carried out on the content. It can be about a product testing or ask about the different activities of the participant where daily or regular tracking is needed. This can also be used to track digital, TV or other media habits based on declarative. ( TV channels watched yesterday...)

Desk research

Desk research or secondary research is a method where existing research / reports or any accessible information is used to collect data and provide answers to busienss questions. The purpose is to gather and analyse data. Data can be found on the internet or through existing reports. Desk research can be performed by any researcher and it is quite limited compared to a deeper research.

Also see: Secondary data


Demographics gather data from the respondent, such as age, gender, education, income, social class, job title, purchasing behaviour and so on. It is used to segment respondents and pre-target them. The demographics part of a questionnaire gathers data used in analsing results obtained from different sub-groups of the respondents. The final aspect of the demographics section depends on the nature and objectives of the project.

Also see: Questionnaire, Self completion questionnaire


In research, a data file gathers all the data collecting during a market research project. At a later stage, it will be cleaned up and analysed going through multiple quality checks. This data file can be a paper document or a computer file. It includes demographics, addresses, verbatim answers...

Data weighting

This is the occasion where a respondent can weigh more than 1. It is used to balance the sample during a market research project. It is done through a mathematical procedure, used in relation to data from quantitative research.
From the statistical side of things, the weighting of the data involves decreasing the value (weight) of answers from respondent type over-represented in the sample and increase the value (weight) of answers from respondents type under-represented in the sample.

Data Visualization

Multiple methods of graphic representation, in one or three dimensions using powerful software to generate dashboards or automated reports. Data visualization is the graphic visual representation of data combined with information.

CPM (Cost-per-mil)

Cost Per Mil (or cost per thousand) is the cost for 1000 presented advertisements on one webpage. It is mainly used in the advertising world. If a website publisher does charge $1.00 CPM, then an advertiser will pay $1.000 for every 1,000 impressions he will make.


CPI (Cost-per-Interview)

Cost Per Interview defines the cost per survey of a project. It is the flat price a company pays to get qualified respondents to a survey or a project.

Also see: CPA (Cost-per-Acquistion)

CPI (Cost-per-Install)

It refers as "Cost Per Install" which defines the Cost for any app installed by a lead in order to test or complete this app for research purposes. It is used to test an app that is not launched yet to validate the concept or business model behind it.

Also see: CPA (Cost-per-Acquistion)

CPA (Cost-per-Acquistion)

It refers as "Cost Per Acquisition" which explains the cost used to recruit converted leads (participants in research, leads to join an access panel...). CPA using channels such as marketing campaigns or acquisition campaigns.

Also see: CPI (Cost-per-Install),CPI (Cost-per-Interview), Digital Acquisition


A concept presents an idea, a product or service for the public to test. This is most of the time presented as a quick video or image and represents information about a given product or service which will be subject to analysis at a later stage. A concept is used when it is not feasible to show anything tangible.

Also see: Tests

Codeframe shows how the verbal words or open answers from an open question have been translated into verbal words. It helps with the simplification of answers to open ended questions and quantify answers. (ex: 28 respondents mentionned something about"Price", 17 talked about "Quality"...)

Creating a code frame allow to group verbatim and open ended answers by different topics. Thanks to this, open answer can be quantified for further analysis.
Also see: Open ends
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