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The Words of Market Research

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Term Main definition
Data Visualization

Multiple methods of graphic representation, in one or three dimensions using powerful software to generate dashboards or automated reports. Data visualization is the graphic visual representation of data combined with information.

Data weighting

This is the occasion where a respondent can weigh more than 1. It is used to balance the sample during a market research project. It is done through a mathematical procedure, used in relation to data from quantitative research.
From the statistical side of things, the weighting of the data involves decreasing the value (weight) of answers from respondent type over-represented in the sample and increase the value (weight) of answers from respondents type under-represented in the sample.


In research, a data file gathers all the data collecting during a market research project. At a later stage, it will be cleaned up and analysed going through multiple quality checks. This data file can be a paper document or a computer file. It includes demographics, addresses, verbatim answers...


Demographics gather data from the respondent, such as age, gender, education, income, social class, job title, purchasing behaviour and so on. It is used to segment respondents and pre-target them. The demographics part of a questionnaire gathers data used in analsing results obtained from different sub-groups of the respondents. The final aspect of the demographics section depends on the nature and objectives of the project.

Also see: Questionnaire, Self completion questionnaire

Desk research

Desk research or secondary research is a method where existing research / reports or any accessible information is used to collect data and provide answers to busienss questions. The purpose is to gather and analyse data. Data can be found on the internet or through existing reports. Desk research can be performed by any researcher and it is quite limited compared to a deeper research.

Also see: Secondary data


Diary is mostly used for qualitative research. Participants have to log in to a platform and write down their feelings, thoughts on a daily or weekly basis. The analysis of the diary will be carried out on the content. It can be about a product testing or ask about the different activities of the participant where daily or regular tracking is needed. This can also be used to track digital, TV or other media habits based on declarative. ( TV channels watched yesterday...)

Digital Acquisition

The digital acquisiton goal is to acquire new participants through different promotional actions. We live in a very connected world and most people visit many websites every day. Those respondents are attracted to specific websites to strengthen a panel and make it bigger in term of reach.

Also see: CPA (Cost-per-Acquistion)

Digital Fingerprinting

A layer of additional security to access the surveys and verify the identity of the respondent using a combination of information (Geolocation, OS, Device type and version, Proxy usage). Digital Fingerprinting is a very powerfull technology used to identify duplicate respondents. This is a great method to remove fraudulent respondents and perform quality checks.

Discussion Groups (FGI)

Discussion Groups also knows as Focus Groups are one of the most popular qualitative research methods. The purpose is to gather a group of respondents discussing a set of topics which have been pre-arranged. Focus groups are used to explore consumer minds - to understand their behaviour or decision making process when it comes to use a service or buy a product. Focus Groups are run by moderators or specialised researchers who supervise and animate the discussion. Groups are recorded on video and discussions are being transcript for further analysis.
Nowadays, raise of technology allows to conduct Online Focus Groups (Discussion Groups) quite easily with various softwares or tools in the market to connect participants and moderator / administrator all together to share thoughts.

Also see: Qualitative research, Moderator, Discussion guide/scenario, In Depth Interviews (IDI)

Discussion guide/scenario

This is a script with a set of questions used for qualitative research. It can also include a scenario. The scenario is here to guide respondents through the discussion and to make sure this last one is structured.

Also see: Discussion Groups (FGI), In Depth Interviews (IDI), Qualitative research


Do It Together approach allows clients to be supported by teams of experts using most advanced DIY tools. This is a balance between doing things by themselves and outsourcing all the research. Often seen as the most efficient method to get lower costs for maximal insights.


Do It Yourself is a self-service platform. Anyone interested in conducting market research can get access to those automated platforms and start their research right away. Those researchers can create a topic, select a target sample and launch their own project in a few clicks.

Dynamic Sampling

Traffic of respondents coming from different websites or app based sources. Used for difficult targets and access people in remote locations where no access panels exist. Respondents can come from affiliate networks, mobile applications, social networks and thousand of other digital channels...With more than 3 hours a day spend on smartphone in average (global average), dynamic sampling is a great chance to connect with respondents or consumers during their digital daily activities (online /on mobile).

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