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The Words of Market Research

Get through market research vocabulary. Understand the jargon and get things done!


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Term Main definition
UX Research

User Experience Research focuses on the user and its requirements to offer a better experience to its users. Most projects deal with reviewing app and websites. UX can collect valuable insights and feedback to improve an app before its official launch.

Also see: Tree TestUI - User Interface

Usability testing

The methodology used to test a product or website/app by users. Most of the time, usability testing involves be technology items (tablet, smartphone...).

UI - User Interface

User Interface is anything a user could interact with in order to use a service or a digital product (screens, keyboards...). UI is a popular method to test new technologies and to make sure this interface is easy and nice to use.

Also see: Tree Test, UX Research

U&A / H&A

Habits, Usages and Attitude surveys aim to understand the habits of a population. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are being used to collect the opinion of consumers, the purchasing habits along with the attitude towards a product. U&A is a broad, multi-dimensional research, diagnosing two types of questions: practical (a specific consumer habit or behavior) and it can also be the analysis of the consumer conviction and attitudes (emotion, opinion and so on).

Tree Test

A methodology for UX and Usability Testing to validate the logic and design of a website/mobile application or other interfaces. This technique monitors how people naturally click and navigate on a website/app to look for specific information.

Also see: UX Research, UI - User Interface


A tracking study or methodology is used to monitor, track the performance of a brand over time across regular waves. This can be done weekly or monthly.

Top Lines

After one research is completed, the most important outcome will be gathered with pre-created frequency tabs. This is the first step to look deeper at the final data, analyse differences between sub-segments and do the first conclusions.


It is the equivalent of a project timeframe. It is the timeframe committed to conduct and finish a research project. It can work as a deadline for a project too.


Tests can be conducted at home or via focus groups. Usually, some products can be sent at the home of the respondent along with a questionnaire requesting to test the product for several weeks. Tests are usually run on quota sample, selected in line with target group profile - consumers, users and so on. Tests focus on broad and detailed evaluation of specific objects, usually new products and their concept, packaging, advertising, prices...

Also see: Blind Test, Product Testing, Concept, BPTO

Syndicated research

Studies on a specialized problem/ area of research run for a group of clients or at own initiative of the research agency. This allows access to a large pool of respondents at a lower cost because the cost is shared by the consortium.


It is a quantitative study, collecting the attitude of the public towards a particular topic (Eg: voting intention poll). It is meant to get insights from the general population.

Strata sampling

A sampling method from the population. In a survey, when a smaller sub-group population varies under a group population, it is better to divide them into other sub-groups (strata). It provides precise results and cuts down on the number of required respondents.


Respondent who tend to answer questions randomly without reading it first. These kind of respondents are automatically rejected of the survey as the quality won't be good to analyze.

Also see: Speeding

Story board

A set of images, drawing to show how the scenario of a movie or an add would go. This is used in early stage of testing for TV ads. Consumer feedback can be collected at that stage.

 See also: Animatic

Segmentation studies

A study, which targets a certain group of the population or a certain market. Segmentation studies is a set of research procedures, aiming at presenting a typology of a certain market or group. The result of the segmentation study is a description of the analyzed area. The base used to define such groups are socio-demographics variables of the respondents, frequency..

Also see: Mailing Questionnaire, Questionnaire

Secondary data

Information gathered through the internet or research done in the past, through existing sources.


Screener is one of the most important part of the questionnaire - most of the time at the very beginning of a survey - which helps to identify if the respondent fits the targeted audience. If the participants fit the target audience, then he will be able to continue the survey. For data quality purpose, a good screener needs to be concise , blended and by all means not leading. (to build screening questions in a smart way so the respondent can not guess what the study will be about).



Money, Vouchers, Cash, Entries, Cinema Tickets, Points are various rewards (also called incentives) used to thank a participant for the time he has taken to complete a survey or participate in a project. Incentives are a way to boost a response rate too and to keep a well maintain and engaged access panel.

Also see: Response Rate

Response Rate

When a survey is being sent or exposed to a panel of respondents, the response rate is the ratio of people clicking on the survey link and starting the survey. To make sure you have a high response rate, the invitation must be appealing and attractive. This will also be impacted by incentives or rewards given, frequency of sendouts, if the survey is accessible from all devices, moment of the day, week or month where the survey invitation is sent.

Also see: Reward

Research Sample

A group of respondents in a quantitative study, representing a certain population and preselected according to criteria fitting the target audience. The results of answers given by the sample are the base for forwarding answers to the research objectives. Research sample falls within two categories: representative and non-representative.

Also see: Booster, Population

Representative Sample (random)

A sample of the population, which matches the representation of the country or specific population. For example, in a given country, there will be guidelines to get a certain percentage of males versus females, the same applies for age and so on. The goal here is getting a balanced representation of the country's population or a group supposed to represent your typical audience. ( consumers, visitors, subsribers...). Without a representative sample; data and research may be affected by a sampling bias with too much weight allocated to one specific group or respondents.

Also see: Quota sample, Booster

Recontact study

A Recontact Study is a study where participants are being re-contacted for a follow up survey. It can apply to Product Testing or similar surveys where participants have to be contacted for follow-up questions after testing a product for example.

Also see: Product Testing


Usually, when the project is finished, recommendations are been made. It results from the insights gathered from the market research project and its findings. It helps to understand the consumer's needs better. Recommendations are usually for the client to improve his service or product.

Re-Contact Studies / Waves

Multi waves studies are projects with different waves and with the same group of respondents contacted several times. Respondents answer one survey and are re-contacted after a certain period of time (weeks, months). It is aimed to study the dynamics in respondent's behaviours.


Put some restrictions regarding some demographics (age,gender, social class, region) to get a representative sample of the population. The researcher looks for demographic information on the country they are researching and apply it to their project.

Also see: Strata quotas

Quota sample

Quotas are associated with a defined segment of the population (age, gender, SEC, location) in order to get a representative sample for the research project. Such criteria are expressed in the form of so-called quotas. During a research project, one researcher can decide to close a quota if this one is filled to not bias the survey (Eg: 200 interviews with women aged 18-29 years old). The quota is here to ensure that the structure of the sample reflected the balance of various groups in the actual population.

Also see: Quotafull, Strata quotas

Quota full

When a quota has been filled, it shows as quotafull. The researcher can close the quota for the project and focus on the remaining ones in order to get his project done.

Also see: Quota sample


A set of questions administrated either face to face or online to respondents. The questionnaire has to follow a certain logic. It is used in quantitative research. The two basic types of questionnaires are interviewer questionnaires and self-completion.

Also see: Demographics, Interviewer, Segmentation Studies

Quantitative research

A method of research focused on quantitative or numerical description and explanations of phenomena. Quantitative research relies on collecting data on a larger scale. It focuses on conducting market research project on a larger sample size of the population. The topics are usually more broadening. Precise statistical methods of sample selection are being used. Quantitative research uses standardized research tools and questionnaires. It generalizes the results of the study for an universe larger than the sample. This quantitative research aims to provide conclusive answers to specific research objectives.

Also see: Self completion questionnaire, Standardization, Qualitative research

Qualitative research

A broad category of research methods and techniques, sharing the following features: focus on describing, explaining various phenomena and, not their frequency. A qualitative method of research conducted on a smaller sample of the population. Most of the time the research is done through focus group, in depths interviews. The purpose is to reach difficult targets or to be able to discuss deeper topics.

See also: Standardization, Quantitative research, Observational Research, Ad Hoc, Discussion Groups, Discussion Guide/Scenario

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