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The Words of Market Research

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Term Main definition

Quality Control is present to make sure the outcome of the survey responds to some criteria. Some trap questions, indicators of participants rushing into the survey will be identified and poor respondents will be removed to ensure the best quality.


Price Sensitivity Measurement -- One of the most popular techniques used to measure the sensitivity of a price point. Price sensitivity measurement is included in a broader project and the method consists of four simple questions about the price of the product or service. Results are used to calculate the acceptable price range and optimise price point.

Also see: Price Tests


Programmatic buying is the use of software to connect automatically offer and demand with a price that is determined following complex algorithms. This was used initially by the advertising industry, but nowadays expended to market research as a way to sources respondents or participants.

Product Testing

A type of research, in which a product is tested. It could be at home or during a focus group. Product testing falls into the FMCG category (food, cosmetics, etc.).

Also see: Tests, Blind Tests, Recontact study

Primary data

Primary data refers to all Information gathered through original research. Data will not exist until the study is carried out. This is for example data collected via surveys or other adhoc research.

Price tests

A quantitative research that studies consumer reactions to the prices of a product or a group of products. Price tests focus on opinion about existing prices, price sensitivity, getting the acceptable price...

Also see: BPTO, PSM

It defines the group (age, gender) or initial universe whom we are targeting for research purposes. E.g: population of Vietnamese citizen aged 25-34 years old, taking the plane at least once a year in the last twelve months.

Also see: Research Sample

Pilot, Pilot study

A test run study or pilot aims to verify the research method in a project. A pilot is used in large and complex projects with a smaller sample size to confirm the method and tools before conducting the research at a larger scale. The results of the pilot are not included in the final results of the study, but are used solely to iron out the possible problems with the questionnaire (wording, questions...)

Passive Measurement

This methodology consists in asking volunteer participants to install an app on a laptop or smartphone to collect behavioural data, such as internet usage, websites searched. This can also help to collect system information such as internet speed, Geolocalisation and many more.


A study administrated with paper and a pencil. It is mainly conducted in remote areas or areas where the Internet is not so developed. A Paper and Pencil interview is a quantitative approach - a bit old school for now.

Panel Management System

Panel Magagement System (PMS) in an Internal system to manage the database of respondents, collecting data such as age, gender for a better targeting. One unique panel platform would integrate panel recruitment, sampling , incentives scheme and the panel interface for respondents. Most often, Panel Management System is connected via API to other softwares.

Open ended

Open end (OE) or open question refers to question within the questionnaire where any answer is possible. The respondent is free to write down any suitable answer which is the opposite of ready choices. E.g. - what do you like about this product? Why do you use this brand?

Also see: closed ended, codeframe

Online Focus Group

A Focus group which is conducted online. Participants are requested to join an online group to discuss a topic via visio conference tools. Its powerful methodology to access to respondents from remote locations and participants tend to be more comfortable and open because they are in a familiar environment.

Also see: Focus Group

Online Communities

A group of online participants who participate in an online survey through a qualitative platform. Sometimes, some group chats are possible between members and managed by a moderator to stimulate the conversation.


A method that is cost effective as different topics are being researched in one project. Costs can be shared through multiple clients. It is inexpensive and fast. It also provides the results to multiple clients.

Observational Research

A technique used in qualitative research, including the observation of respondent behavior in a specific set environment (home, store, or at work).
The researcher can observe how the respondent makes his choice and what could influence his judgment. Examples might be shopping (at sale outlets), living at home (cooking, cleaning), or even observation of children.

See also Qualitative Research

Synonyms - Active Observation

A researcher guiding a group of respondent in a group discussion. He usually animates the Focus Group. The moderator writes the final report too. He is essential to the research process.

Also see: Discussion Groups (FGI), interviewer

Mobile Survey

A survey that is mobile-friendly, ready to be taken on a smartphone device. It helps to reach a larger sample size as not everyone is sitting behind a laptop and people are more accessible through their smartphones.

Micro surveys

Micro survey is a term used to define a short and simple survey that take less than 5 minutes to complete. Micro surveys are very often used for incidence check or a screenshot of a market/ product/service.

Mailing Questionnaire

A written questionnaire delivered to respondents by mail. Respondents have to answer the questionnaire and send it back, thanks to a pre-paid return envelope. A letter of Introduction is attached to it along with the instructions. An incentive can be added to get a better response rate.

Also see: Segmentation Studies


An Interviewer is an experienced employee who will conduct the research whose tasks is to administrate questionnaire to respondents and elicit information out of them.

Also see: Questionnaire, Moderator


An element of the research with a bigger impact than the face value. It is fundamental for a generalized interpretation or explanation of a statement. An indicator is a basis for broader interpretation and explanation of phenomena.

Incidence Rate

Incidence (or Incidence rate) is a ratio that shows the percentage of qualified participants within a survey based on specific profile criteria needed for the research. The incidence rate is one of the most critical ratio to calculate the CPI (Cost Per Interview) of a fieldwork. (The lowest is the incidence rate, the higher will be the CPI).

Also see: Incidence Check

Incidence Check

Incidence check will verify the Incidence Rate before launching a project. This will allow the researcher to check project feasibility and estimate a CPI. The Incidence check will be the approximate percentage of the population targeted.

Also see: Incidence Rate

In Depth Interviews (IDI)

In Depth Interview (IDI) is a One to One conversation with a respondent which will allow the potential to reach specific information and a deeper knowledge within topics.
The interview may start with basic questions to understand motives, attitudes and behaviours. Interviews are recorded on audio and analysis will be carried out at a later stage.
During such an interview, the interviewer poses explorative questions - to understand/clarify motivation, attitudes, behavior. IDI are also used for BtoB participants and or very specific profiles.
Nowadays, raise of technology allows to conduct In Depth Interview (IDI) online quite easily with various softwares or tools in the market to connect participant and interviewer to share thoughts.

Also see: Qualitative research, Discussion guide/scenario, Discussion Groups (FGI)

Imagery studies

Imagery studies are a group of research methods that focuses on consumers' emotional reactions under stimuli when seeing pictures or visual materials of a specific product, brand, or person.
Imagery studies focus on discovering the repertoire of consumer's emotional reactions, their perceptions, associations, stereotypes linked with the object of the study; with the objective to identify the sources of these attitudes, define their impact on attitude towards the topic of the study. All this to come up with a strategy of building a positive image for the future.


ESOMAR Code is the most popular ethical code present in the market research industry. It represents the International Code on Market, Opinion and Social Research and Data Analytics. It is a non-profit organisation who provides professional guidance for its members for over 70 years. The codex was drawn up in 1977, as a joint initiative of the Internal Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the European Society of Opinion and Market Research (ESOMAR) with basic rules for researcher and respondent interaction, to set up standard for use and publication of research results....

HUT (Home Unit Testing)

HUT relates to product marketing tests performs in the consumer home. A company will send a product to the participant's home and this product will be tested and reviewed thanks to a questionnaire. Feedback will be collected through the questionnaire.

Also see: Home test (test "in home")

Home test (test "in home")

Home testing requires the product to be sent home. Participants will have the opportunity to test the product over a certain period of time and provide feedback on various aspects such as packaging, testing, information available. The interview is carried out on reaching the respondent's home and for a second visit after he tested the product to collect valuable insights.

Also see: tests, HUT


Graphical representation of data where colours are being used to represent values. Mostly used to visualize the volume of locations for sales or other things. It can also be used to identify where people click on websites / app, what part of the image / ad / packaging they prefer / dislike and then generate insightful heatmaps.

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